Click on graphs for larger versions.
References for R&D Cost Graph
Adams, C. and Brantner, V. (2006) Estimating the cost of new drug development: Is it really $802 million? Health Affairs. 25(2), 420-428.
Adams, C. and Brantner, V. (2010) Spending on new drug development. Health Economics. 19(2), 130-141.
DiMasi, J. et al. (1991) Cost of Innovation in the pharmaceutical industry. Journal of Health Economics. 10(2), 107-152.
DiMasi, J. et al. (2003) The price of innovation: New estimates of drug development costs. Journal of Health Economics. 22(2), 151-185.
Gilbert, J., Henske, P. and Singh, A. (2003) Rebuilding big pharma’s business model. In Vivo. 21(10), 1-10.
Hansen, R. (1979) The pharmaceutical development process: Estimates of development costs and times and the effect of proposed regulatory changes. In Chien, R.A. ed. Issues in Pharmaceutical Economics. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company. 151-191.
Mestre-Ferrandiz, J., Sussex, J. and Towse, A. (2012) The R&D Cost of a New Medicine. London: Office of Health Economics.
Paul, S.M. et al. (2010) How to improve R&D productivity: The pharmaceutical industry’s grand challenge. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 9(3), 203-214.
Wiggins, S. (1987) The Cost of Developing a New Drug. Washington, D.C.: Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America.